was born on 9 November 1801 at Norwich, Chenango County, New York. He was the son of Gail Borden
and Philadelphia Wheeler
. Gail Borden married Penelope Mercer
. Gail Borden married Augusta Stearns
in 1845. Gail Borden was shown in the census on 8 April 1851 as a manufacturer ??
Gail Borden and Augusta Stearns
appeared on the census of 8 April 1851 at Galveston, Galveston County, Texas; real estate value 100,000.00.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GAIL BORDEN, JR., OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK..
IMPROVEMENT IN CONCENTRATION OF MILK.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 15,553, dated August 19, 1856.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GAIL BORDEN, Jr., of of the city of Brooklyn, in the county of Kings, State of New York, have discovered and invented a new and useful Process and Improvement for the Concentration and Preservation of Milk; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the same, reference being had to thc annexed drawing, said drawing being a vertical view of the apparatus and forming a part of this specification, except the vessel marked D, which does not pertain to this application. To enable others skilled in the art to make and use my invention, I herein describe its nature, office, and construction.
First. The nature of my discovery and invention consists in concentrating,milk in a vacuum-vessel out of contact with the atmosphere, to prevent incipient decomposition, or any hurtful change in the constituent elements of the milk during the process of evaporation.
Second. It also consists in keeping the new sweet milk to be concentrated, in vacuo, in a vessel from which the air is exhausted, to keep the milk out of contact with the atmosphere.
B is a vacuum boiler or pan for concentrating the milk out of contact with the atmosphere.
A is a pipe connected with the vacuum-boiler, and to an air-pump and condenser.
C is a vacuum-reservoir, in which new sweet milk is placed all kept in vacuum until it is required to be transferred or let into the vacuum-boiler B for concentration. This reservoir is connected with the boiler and with the air-pump.
The milk is boiled and concentrated in the vacuum-vessel B by means of steam applied in the known way, and the application of the air-pump and condenser. When a steam-pipe is employed inside of the boiler, it should he so coiled that every part of it maybe reach by the hand with a scrub-brush to clean it. Both steam-pipe and jacket may he employed at the sametime. A thermometer is inserted into the boiler, and a vacuum-gauge connected with it to indicate thc temperature of the boiling fluid and the extent of the vacuum.
The milk which I desire to concentrate is placed in the vacuum-reservoir C as soon as practicable after the milking, where it remains until let into the boiler for concentration. The milk may be scalded in this reservoir, or it should be done previous to its being put into it. By scalding the milk at a temperature of from 150º to 200º Fahrenheit, previous to its concentration, portions of its albumen coagulate and adhere to the surface of the vessel, and thus prevent its coating the vacuum-boiler. The vacuum is produced in the reservoir C by the air-pump, through a pipe connected therewith, as A and C'.
c is a cock to open and close the communication.
C'' is a pipe communicating with the reservoir and boiler.
c' is a cock to open and close the communication.
The reservoir is provided with a man-hole for convenience of cleaning. It is charged with milk through a pipe leading to the cans by means of atmospheric pressure.
The boiling or working of the vacuum-boiler is conducted in a similar manner to vacuum-pans in the manufacture of refined sugar in the common way, except that I find it best first to place a small quantity of milk in the boiler. I then (after the boiling has commenced) let the milk flow into the boiler from the reservoir by a stream gradually running in through pipe C", regulated in quantity by the cock a' in such a manner as always or during the principal part of the evaporating process to keep and maintain the fluid in the boiler B at about the same consistence or state of spissitude.
The arrangement and position of the vessel employed may be made to conform with buildings in which they are placed.
To facilitate the operation of concentrating milk, so as to keep the vacuum-boiler constantly employed. I provide a vacuum receiving-vessel below and in connection with the boiler, as E, in which I can at pleasure produce a vacuum by a connecting-pipe leading to the air-pump, a cock being provided to let on and shut off the vacuum, as E' and e". When the milk is sufficiently concentrated in the boiler B, it can he let into the receiving-vessel E by means of cock e'' without breaking the vacuum in the former.
Milk may be concentrated to any degree required. I do not confine myself to one standard. I have reduced it eighty-three per cent, but commonly sixty-five to eighty per cent.
For long keeping I place the concentrated, milk in hermetically-scaled vessels.. For keeping a few days or weeks, according to the temperature of the weather, it is unnecessary thus to seal them.
The concentrated milk, having been cooled, is poured into the canisters or vessels, which are filled quite full, covered tightly, turned upside down, and deposited in a cool place.
I am aware that a vacuum-pan has long been used for the concentration of saccharine sirups and refining sugar, to prevent discoloration by a high degree of heat, and also employed in producing extracts to avoid scorching or burning. I concentrate milk in vacuum for a different purpose.
I have discovered that the water in milk can be expelled without changing the qualities of its other constituents if evaporated out of contact with the air by preventing the action of the oxygen on the milk while in the process of concentration, thereby preventing incipient decomposition or any harmful change.
Like blood, milk is a living fluid, and as soon as drawn from the cow begins to die, change, and decompose. In no other process for concentrating milk with which I am acquainted has any adequate means been adopted to prevent incipient decomposition of the milk and render it preservative and soluble.
My milk is prepared for use by adding water in proportion to the degree of concentration to which it had been subjected, and when in this state will produce an equal quantity of cream with the original milk It is rendered preservative and soluble without the use of sugar or any antiseptic, which has not, to my knowledge, ever been effected before.
Besides the advantages of concentrating milk in vacuum, there is no means yet, discovered by which evaporation is so rapidly and safely conducted.
Milk concentrated by my plan can be afforded for less than half the price at which other concentrated milk has usually been sold. My process will cause milk to become in as general and common use as sugar.
Having thus explained my invention, I would state that I am well aware that sugar and various extracts have been and are now concentrated in a vacuum under a low degree of heat to prevent discoloration and burning. I do not claim boiling milk and concentrating it in a vacuum-vessel for such a purpose.
I am also aware that scalding milk to improve its preservative qualities has long been known, and that it has been kept in hermetically-scaled vessels. I do not claim these processes.
I am also aware that Wm. Newton and many others since have obtained patents for concentrating milk by various modes of evaporation, and combining it with sugar to render it soluble and preservative. I do not claim this as my discovery or invention; but
What I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—
Producing concentrated sweet milk by evaporation in vacuo, substantially as set, forth, the same having no sugar or other foreign matter mixed with it.
Brooklyn, June 12, 1856
G. BORDEN, JR.
WALTER S. LEWIS.
[Note: This patent was reissued 13 May 1862, No. RE 1,306; on 10 Feb 1863, No. RE 1,398; on 14 Nov 1865, No. RE 2,103, on 17 Ap 1866 , No.2,236].
Gail Borden married Emeline Eunice Church
Gail Borden died on 11 January 1874 at Colorado City, Mitchell County, Texas, at age 72. He was buried at Woodlawn Cemetery, White Plains, Westchester County, New York.
BORDEN, GAIL, JR. (1801-1874). Gail Borden, Jr., inventor, publisher, surveyor, and founder of the Borden Company, son of Gail and Philadelphia (Wheeler) Borden, was born in Norwich, New York, on November 9, 1801. In 1816 the family moved to New London, Indiana, where Borden obtained his only formal schooling, totaling not more than a year and a half. He is thought to have been captain of the local militia when barely twenty years old. In 1822 he was a principal figure in rescuing a freedman from rustlers. Shortly afterward he moved to Mississippi in search of a milder climate to cure a persistent cough. In Mississippi Borden surveyed and taught school. In 1826 he was official surveyor for Amite County as well as deputy federal surveyor.
After arriving at Galveston Island on December 24, 1829, he farmed and raised stock in upper Fort Bend County and spent some time in surveying. By February 1830 he had succeeded his brother, Thomas H. Borden,qv as surveyor for Stephen F. Austin'sqv colony. In 1832 Borden was named one of three members of the San Felipe committee of correspondence. In the Convention of 1833qv he represented Lavaca District. He also assumed many of the duties of colonial secretary for Austin in the absence of Samuel M. Williams.qv
As early as January 1835 Borden made plans to found a newspaper, but it was October 10 before the first issue of his Telegraph and Texas Register,qv published in partnership with his brother Thomas and Joseph Baker,qv appeared in San Felipe. In the meantime he had prepared the first topographical map of Texas and had resumed his responsibilities on the committee of correspondence. Borden published the Telegraph in San Felipe until March 1836, in Harrisburg in April 1836, in Columbia from August 1836 to April 1837, and in Houston in May and June 1837. In October 1835 he was appointed collector for the Department of Brazos, a post he held until 1837. In October and November 1836 he helped lay out the site of Houston.
On June 20, 1837, Borden sold his partnership in the Telegraph to Jacob W. Crugerqv and became the first collector of the port of Galveston under the Republic of Texas.qv His first term as collector lasted from June 1837 to December 1838, when Mirabeau B. Lamarqv removed him for political reasons. His second term lasted from December 1841 to April 1843; he resigned after a dispute with President Sam Houstonqv over evaluation of exchequers.
From 1839 to 1851 Borden was secretary and agent for the Galveston City Company (see Galveston, Texas), which owned most of Galveston Island and for which he helped sell 2,500 lots. He invented a "locomotive bath house" for Galveston women who wished to bathe in the Gulf of Mexico. As an alderman he helped to rid the island temporarily of gamblers. He and his first wife reputedly became the first Anglo-Americans to be baptized in the Gulf west of the Mississippi River. He became Sunday school missionary to the poor and to travelers. He was a trustee of the Texas Baptist Education Society, which founded Baylor University. And he was an officer in the local temperance society and deacon and clerk of the local Baptist church. In 1842 Borden directed insular defenses against an expected Mexican invasion.
In the middle 1840s he began inventing. He is supposed to have experimented with large-scale refrigeration as a means of preventing yellow fever and with a terraqueous machine, a sort of prairie schooner that would go on land or water. In 1849 he perfected a meat biscuit, made of dehydrated meat compounded with flour, which he tried to market on a worldwide scale in partnership with Ashbel Smith.qv Although this project left him deeply in debt, for seven years Borden struggled to sell meat biscuits. For this purpose he moved to New York in 1851 to be nearer trade centers.
In 1853 he sought a patent on a process for condensing milk in vacuum, but it was 1856 before he received American and British patents. He then dropped the meat biscuit to devote himself to condensing milk. He opened a factory in Connecticut in 1856 but failed, then tried and failed again in 1857. Through Jeremiah Milbank, a New York financier, he received new backing and opened another factory in Connecticut in 1858. When the Civil Warqv brought intensified demand for condensed milk, sales grew so much that Borden's success was assured. He opened another factory in Connecticut, two in New York, and one in Illinois and licensed other concerns in Pennsylvania and Maine. He also invented processes for condensing various fruit juices, for extract of beef, and for coffee. After the Civil War he established a meat-packing plant at Borden, Texas, twelve miles west of Columbus, and a sawmill and copperware factory at Bastrop.
After 1871 he spent his winters in Texas because of the milder climate. In 1873 he built a freedmen's school and a white children's school, organized a day school and a Sunday school for black children, aided in constructing five churches, maintained two missionaries, and partially supported numerous poorly paid teachers, ministers, and students. Borden married Penelope Mercer in Mississippi in 1828; they had seven children. In 1845 he married Augusta Stearns, and in 1860 he married Emeline Eunice Church. He died in Borden, Texas, on January 11, 1874; his body was shipped by private car to New York to be buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.
Borden's meat biscuit was his first invention, which preserved meat extracts and drew much praise in several articles in the Scientific American periodical.
Borden's meat biscuit patent was titled "Preparation of Portable Soup-Bread," issued as U.S. Patent No. 7,066 on 5 Feb 1850.
Military use of the meat biscuit was also recognized as highly suitable for meal rations, and was favorably compared in the Scientific American periodical against the difficulties experienced by other countries having to preserve meats for their military needs.
Awards were presented for Borden's meat biscuit at exhibitions both home and abroad. In England, at the London Great Exhibition, first class medals recognized Borden's invention, in the company of other American winners such as C.H. McCormick for his "Virginia Reaper,” and Charles Goodyear for his “India Rubber Fabrics.”
Borden's condensed milk was his next great invention, which launched his very successful diary company supplying his Eagle brand milk to cities distant from farm supply, and was also recorded in several Scientific American articles.
The condensed milk patent gives Borden's description of his method in U.S. Patent No. 15,553 issued 19 Aug 1856 - the first effective commercial process in the U.S. for condensing and preserving milk.
Borden's fruit juice concentrating patent shows his continuing interest in preserving more types of food detailed in U.S. Patent 35,919, issued 22 July 1862, titled "Improvement in Concentrating and Preserving For Use Cider and Other Juices of Fruits."